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15.0 Anaesthesia

15.0 Anaesthesia

Important: the drugs in this section should only be administered by, or under the direct supervision of, personnel experienced in their use, with adequate training in anaesthesia and airway management, and when resuscitation equipment is available. 

15.1.1 Drugs used for intravenous anaesthesia

RED    Etomidate injection, 2mg/mL
RED    Ketamine injection, 10mg/mL, 50mg/mL, 100mg/mL
RED    Propofol injection, 5mg/mL, 10mg/mL, 20mg/mL
RED    Thiopental Sodium injection, 500mg vial


15.1.2 Inhalation anaesthetics

RED    Desflurane
RED    Isoflurane
RED    Sevoflurane
RED    Nitrous Oxide


15.1.3 Antimuscarinic drugs
 

RED       Atropine Sulfate injection,  600mcg/mL
               pre-filled disposable syringe 100mcg/mL, 200mcg/mL, 300mcg/mL
RED       Glycopyrronium bromide injection 200mcg/mL
RED       Hyoscine Hydrobromide injection, 400mcg/mL, 600mcg/mL 
GREEN   Glycopyrronium bromide injection 200mcg/mL  (Palliative care use only)


15.1.4 Sedative and analgesic peri-operative drugs

15.1.4.1 Benzodiazepines
RED    Diazepam injection (solution), 5mg/5mL
RED    Diazepam injection (emulsion), 5mg/5mL
RED    Lorazepam injection, 4mg/mL
RED    Midazolam injection, 2mg/mL, 5mg/mL 
 
15.1.4.2 Non-opioid analgesics
RED    Ketorolac Trometamol injection, 30mg/mL
 
15.1.4.3 Opioid analgesics 
RED    Alfentanil injection, 500mcg/mL
RED    Remifentanil injection, 1mg vial, 2mg vial and 5mg vial
 
15.1.4.4 Other drugs for sedation
RED    Dexmedetomidine injection 100mcg/ml  Second line agent in ITU only


15.1.5 Neuromuscular blocking drugs

RED    Atracurium besilate injection, 10mg/mL
RED    Mivacurium injection, 2mg/mL
RED    Rocuronium bromide, 10mg/mL
RED    Suxemethonium chloride injection, 50mg/mL

15.1.6. Drugs used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade

RED    Edrophonium Choride injection 10mg/mL
RED    Neostigmine metilsulfate injection, 2.5mg/mL
RED    Sugammadex injection 100mg/ml - restricted to specific use


15.1.7 Antagonists for central and respiratory depression

RED    Flumazenil injection, 100mcg/mL
RED    Naloxone hydrochloride injection, 20mcg/mL, 400mcg/mL, 1mg/mL 
            (for post operative respiratory depression)


15.1.8 Drugs used for malignant hyperthermia

RED    Dantrolene sodium injection, 20mg vial

Artecaine                                                                                                                                                                                                   Artecaine is an amide-type local anaesthetic used for dental anaesthesia

RED    Articaine hydrochloride with adrenaline injection,                                                                                                                               40mg/mL with 1 in 200,000 and 40mg/mL with 1 in 100,000 

Bupivacaine                                                                                                                                                                                               This has a longer duration of action than other local anaesthetics. It has a slow onset of action, taking up to 30 minutes for full effect

RED    Bupivacaine hydrochloride 
            injection, 2.5mg/mL, and 5mg/mL 
            Infusion, 1mg/mL. 1.25mg/mL 


Levobupivacaine                                                                                                                                                                                    
This is an isomer of bupivacaine, has anaesthetic and analgesic properties similar to bupivacaine but is thought to have fewer adverse effects

RED    Levobupivacaine hydrochloride   injection, 2.5mg/mL, 5mg/mL and 7.5mg/mL                      

Lidocaine                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lidocaine is effectively absorbed from mucous membranes and is a useful surface anaesthetic.

RED    Lidocaine Hydrochloride   injection, 5mg/mL, 10mg/mL, 20mg/mL             

Mepivacaine                                                                                                                                                                                             This is an amide-type local anaesthetic used for dental anaesthesia. To avoid excessive doasge in obese patients, dose may need to be calculated on the basis of ideal body weight.

RED    Mepivacaine hydrochloride injection, 30mg/mL    

Prilocaine                                                                                                                                                                                                 This is a local anaesthetic of low toxicity which is similar to lidocaine.

RED   Prilocaine hydrochloride (Prilotekal®) in glucose injection 20mg/mL

Ropivacaine                                                                                                                                                                                             This is an amide-type local anaesthetic agent similar to bupivacaine. It is less cardiotoxic than bupivacaine, but also less potent.

RED    Ropivacaine hydrochloride injection, 2mg/mL, 7.5mg/mL and 10mg/mL

            Infusion, 2mg/mL 

Tetracaine                                                                                                                                                                                                 This is an effective local anaesthetic for topical application prior to venepuncture.

RED    Tetracaine gel 4%